Offenses that trigger federal forfeiture
arranged alphabetically by topic H - Z

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Last update May 24, 2008

Note:  A large number of forfeiture statutes are stand-alone statutes, prescribing forfeiture as a penalty for a single offense or related group of offenses.  Other forfeitable offenses have been added by incorporating by reference other statutes listing numerous offenses.   The largest number of the incorporated by reference statutes were incorporated through 18 U.S.C. § 981(a)(1)(C), which incorporates by reference "any offense constituting 'specified unlawful activity' as defined by 18 U.S.C. § 1956(c)(7)(B).  Section
1956(c)(7)(B) names numerous specific criminal statutes and incorporates by reference the "racketeering offenses" listed in 18 U.S.C. § 1961(1), which in turn lists a large number of specific criminal statutes as well as several broad categories of crimes.  Any crimes from those lists can be prosecuted as a civil forfeiture under § 981. 

Many of the same offenses listed in § 981 trigger criminal forfeiture under statutes incorporated by reference in 18 U.S.C. § 982.   Additionally, any civil forfeiture statute which does not have a criminal forfeiture counterpart -- either under a specific criminal forfeiture statute or § 982 -- can be prosecuted as a criminal forfeiture under 28 U.S.C. § 2461.

[*] denotes criminal statutes incorporated by reference in 18 U.S.C. § 981(a)(1)
[**] denotes criminal statutes incorporated by reference as "specified unlawful activities" in 18 U.S.C. §§ 981(a)(1)(C) & 1956(c)(7)
[***] denotes criminal statutes incorporated by reference as "racketeering offenses" in 18 U.S.C. §§ 981(a)(1)(C), 1956(c)(7) & 1961(1)

Health care


Internal Revenue Service Labor unions
Money laundering & the catch-all forfeiture statutes
Money transmittal businesses
Obstruction of justice
Pornography & child sexual exploitation - (See also Slavery and trafficking in persons) Prison-made goods -- shipping regulations Public assistance

Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organizations (RICO) Slavery, trafficking in persons

Specified Unlawful Activity  - this long laundry list of offenses from 18 U.S.C. § 1956(c)(7) is incorporated by reference into 18 U.S.C. § 981(a)(1)(C)
Terrorism & crimes against foreign countries (see also Violent crimes; War and National Defense)
Theft and stolen property
Transportation Of Contraband
Violent crimes (see also Terrorism)
War and National Defense (see also Terrorism) Welfare and public assistance

Click here to go to Part I - Federal Offenses That Trigger Forfeiture A - G