Index to FEAR's Asset Forfeiture Defense Manual, Volumes 1 & 2

Revised 4/22/02 by L. Felkins

Note: This index includes topics that will be covered in volume 2, which is still being written. Any section numbers in chapters 00 through 11 are in volume 1. (The chapter number is the first two digits of the section number.) If the issue you're trying to research is in volume 2, you might be able to find something about it in Appendix 1 (CAFRA digested by key word) or Appendix 3 (Glossary) - both of which appear at the end of volume 1.
 

 

Key word topics

Section

1984 and the War on Drugs

01A03d

5 year statute of limitations

06D01

Abuses CAFRA did not address

00A03

Administrative Claim & Cost Bond, Summary Forfeiture

10

Administrative forfeiture

11A

Administrative forfeiture - deadline for notice

09C02c

Administrative forfeiture - dollar limit

09C01

Administrative forfeiture - judicial review

11A08

Administrative forfeiture proceedings deprive court of jurisdiction over motions for return of property

06C04.

Administrative Procedures Act

10B04b

Admiralty rules

00D02

Affirmative defenses

13B02

Aiding and abetting

02A03a

Amendment to pleadings

13D

American Civil War Confiscation Acts

01A02d

Answer

13B

Answer - deadline for filing

13B01

Answer - in general

13B01

Answer - service of

13B06

Appeal

22H

Appeal - final judgment rule

22H

Appeal - government's right to

22H

Appeal - IFP

22H

Appeal - jurisdiction of district court

22H

Appeal - matters not raised below

22H02

Appeal - new rules

22H

Appeal - notice of

22H

Appeal - standards of review

22H02

Appeal, interlocutory

19K04

Applicability of CAFRA to Patriot Act forfeitures

00C02

Applicability of the Bill of Rights to forfeitures

01D

Applicability of the entrapment defense in civil forfeiture cases

06E05

Arrest of property

12C01

Article III standing

05A01

Asset restraining orders under CAFRA

08D06

Attempted crimes

02A03b

Attorney - court appointment of

15A

Attorney fees forfeiture

15X

Attorney, release of funds for

15D

Attorney's fee award

24

Attorney's fee award - Hyde amendment

24C

Attorney's fees - "takings" cases

24D

Attorney's fees - CAFRA

24A

Attorney's fees - circumstances render award unjus

24B03

Attorney's fees - Civil Rights Act

24E

Attorney's fees - continency fee agreement

24H04

Attorney's fees - Federal Tort Claims Act

24F

Attorney's fees - fees for fee litigation

24H05

Attorney's fees - lodestar

24H02

Attorney's fees - lodestar enhancements

24H03

Attorney's fees - petition & documentation

24H01

Attorney's fees - prevailing party

24B01

Attorney's fees - restraining orders

08D04

Attorney's fees - Rule 11

24G

Attorney's fees - substantially justified

24B02

Austin: Forfeitures that “serve in part to punish” trigger 8th Amendment proportionality requirement

01D03

Bank fraud

02E03

Bank Secrecy Act

17A01c

Bankruptcy fraud - 18 U.S.C. 152

02E04

Basic forfeiture theories and concepts

03

Bennis v. Michigan: the Supreme Court abandons innocent owners

04A

Biblical origin

01A01a

Bifurcated trial (criminal forfeiture)

21E01

Bill of attainder - Defense that doesn’t work

06J02

Boyd: constitutional implications of the quasi-criminal nature of forfeitures

01D01

Burden of proof

21C01

CAFRA

00A

CAFRA -  “Relaxing” the government’s statute of limitations

00A02d

CAFRA - "Customs carve-out"

00B01

CAFRA - abolishes the cost bond in most forfeiture cases

00A01a

CAFRA - Abolition of federal adoption of state forfeitures

00A03c

CAFRA - allows suits for damages to property while detained

00A01e

CAFRA - allows the court to appoint counsel for some indigent claimants

00A01c

CAFRA - applicability

00B

CAFRA - described

00A01

CAFRA - effective date

00B02

CAFRA - Enforcement of foreign forfeiture judgment

00A02a

CAFRA - expanded forfeiture powers for law enforcement

00A02

CAFRA - Lack of oversight over forfeiture programs

00A03b

CAFRA - legislative history

00A

CAFRA - lengthens claimants’ deadlines and imposes some deadlines on the government

00A01f

CAFRA - Mandatory waiver of foreign bank secrecy rights

00A02c

CAFRA - Penalties for secreting assets to avoid seizure

00A02b

CAFRA - property to be returned to owner pending trial on showing of substantial hardship

00A01d

CAFRA - puts the burden of proof on the government

00A01b

CAFRA - Reports to Congress

00A03b

CAFRA - Requirement of a criminal conviction

00A03d

CAFRA - resolving conflicts with other laws

00D01

CAFRA - Statutory procedures

00D01

CAFRA - summary of provisions

00A01

CAFRA - Taking the income away from the police

00A03a

CAFRA - why it was passed

00A

CAFRA repealed “willful blindness” as a substitute for actual knowledge

04B05

CAFRA says owner may show lack of knowledge or consent

04B03

CAFRA’s effect on innocent spouses, dependants and heirs

04B02

CAFRA’s effect on marital property interests

05D02a

CAFRA’s innocent owner requirements

04B01

CAFRA’s uniform innocent owner defense

04B

CAFRA's Landlord innocent owner defense

04B04

Cash & Monetary Instrument Reports (CMIRs)

02G02

Cash “furnished or intended to be furnished”

03C02d

Catch-all forfeiture statutes 981-982

02B

Civil forfeiture

01B02

Civil forfeiture for drug offenses – 21 U.S.C. 881

02C01

Civil forfeiture judgment

21G

Civil forfeiture vs. criminal forfeiture

01B

Civil rights challenges to forfeiture procedures

23D

Claim, administrative (summary)

10A

Claim, late filing

13A01c

Claim, verified/judicial

13A

Claimant

99

Closing arguments

21X

Code of Federal Regulations (CFRs)

00D08

Collateral attacks on forfeitures

23

Collateral estoppel

20

Comingling

03B02

Commenced, defined

00B02

Complaint - "commences" judicial action

12A

Complaint - deadlines for filing

12A02b

Complaint - description of property

12B01b

Complaint - particularity (fraud)

12B02b

Complaint - particularity (Rule E)

12B02a

Complaint - probable cause

12B01c

Complaint - verification (rule C)

12B01a

Complaint for judicial forfeiture, generally

12A

Computer fraud - 18 U.S.C. 1030

02E06

Confrontation clause

21D01

Consent where owner had knowledge

04B03

Consequences of failure to timely file a claim

10C

Consolidation of cases

19I02

Conspiracy

02A03c

Constitution of the United States

00D07

Constitutional issues regarding the remission/mitigation process

11B

Constructive trust

05D02e02

Continuing Criminal Enterprise (CCE)

02C02b

Contraband

03A

Corporation and business partners as owner

05D01

Cost bond

10B

Cost bond refund

22C

Costs

22D

Counterclaims

13B03

Credit card fraud - 18 U.S.C. 1029

02E05

Criminal forfeiture

01B01

Criminal forfeiture details of 21 U.S.C. 853

02C02a

Criminal forfeiture provisions of the drug laws

02C02

Cross-claim

13B03

Cross-examination

21X

Currency Transaction Reports (CTRs)

02G01

Customs forfeitures

02H

Damages to property while detained

22G

Deadlines for motions/pleadings

19A

Declaratory judgment

99

Default judgment

14C

Defenses that don’t work

06J

Deliberate ignorance

04B05

Deodands

01A01b03

Depositions

18C04

Depositions - criminal

17B05

Disclosures - FRCvP 26

18A

Discovery - Brady material

17B03

Discovery - civil

18

Discovery - criminal

17B

Discovery - duty to supplement

18A05

Discovery - F.R.Cr.P. 16

17B01

Discovery - motion to compel

18F01

Discovery - objections to

18D

Discovery - protective order

18D04

Discovery - protective order

18F02

Discovery - sanctions

18F02

Discovery objections - tax returns &private papers

18D03c

Dismissal of action

19B04

Dismissal of indictment

19G

Does CAFRA’s innocent owner defense apply to all federal forfeiture statutes?

04C

Dog sniff

07A04d

Double jeopardy - Defense that doesn’t work

06J01

Drug courier profile

07A04d

Drug offense forfeiture

02C

Early-American forfeiture law

01A02c

Effect of assertion of Fifth Amendment

05C04

Eighth Amendment’s Excessive Fines Clause

06A

Elements of RICO criminal offense

02I01

Elements of the offense

02A02

England’s Navigation Acts

01A01c

English common law and forfeiture

01A01b

Entrapment

06E

Entrapment by estoppel

06E04

Equal Access to Justice Act ("EAJA")

24B

Equitable interests that may confer standing

05D07

Equitable remedies

23A03

Equitable remedies may give spouses a vested interest in marital property

05D02e

Evidence - objections

21C05

Evidence - official records

21X

Evidence - prior testimony

21X

Evidence - privilege

18D02

Evidence - privilege

21C03

Evidence required to submit the entrapment defense to the jury

06E01

Ex parte seizure warrant

08C02

Ex post facto

06G02

Exclusionary rule

07A01

Execution of warrant

07A03e

Exemplars

17A01f

Exigent circumstances

07A04e

Exigent circumstances

07A04e

Expedited release

16B

Expert witness - admissibility

21C04

Expert witness - discovery

18A03

Facilitation

03C

Facilitation, defined

03C01.

False affidavit (Franks)

07A03c

False entry with intent to defraud a bank – 18 U.S.C. 1006

02F02

False statement on a loan application - 18 U.S.C. 1014

02F01

False statement to a government agency - 18 U.S.C. 1001

02F03

False statement to loan officer/gov. official

02F

Federal adoption

06C03

Federal rules of civil procedure

00D03

Federal rules of criminal procedure

00D04

Federal Tort Claims Act

23F

Federal vs. state law

00D06

Fifth amendment "takings" clause

06H

Fifth Amendment “takings” of property without just compensation

01D06

Fifth amendment privilege

18D03

Final order of forfeiture

22A02

Financial records

02E

Financial records

17A01c

Financial records

17C01

Financial transaction reporting violations

02G

Financial transaction to promote unlawful activity – 18 U.S.C. 1956(a)(1)(A)

02D01

Fines & forfeitures

21F

Firearms forfeiture

02L

Forfeiture comes to America

01A02

Forfeiture comes to America: Colonial times

01A02a

Forfeiture comes to America: The American Revolution

01A02b

Forfeiture of estate, “attainder” in English Common Law

01A01b01

Fourth Amendment

07

Fourth Amendment - airport search

07A04d

Fourth Amendment - arrest

07A04a

Fourth Amendment - arrest warrant

07A04a

Fourth Amendment - automobile exception

07A04c

Fourth Amendment - border search

07A04d

Fourth Amendment - challenging warrant

07A03

Fourth Amendment - checkpoints

07A04d

Fourth Amendment - consent search

07A04g

Fourth Amendment - containers

07A02

Fourth Amendment - curtilage

07A02

Fourth Amendment - effect of illegal seizure

07A01

Fourth Amendment - flyovers

07A04h

Fourth Amendment - Franks

07A03c

Fourth Amendment - fruit of poisonous tree

07C

Fourth Amendment - good faith exception

07A03d

Fourth Amendment - hot pursuit

07A04e

Fourth Amendment - inevitable discovery

07A04h

Fourth Amendment - informant's tip

07A03a01

Fourth Amendment - inventory search

07A04c

Fourth Amendment - knock & announce

07A03e

Fourth Amendment - open fields

07A02

Fourth Amendment - plain view

07A04f

Fourth Amendment - pretext search

07A04c

Fourth Amendment - probable cause

07A03a

Fourth Amendment - search incident to arrest

07A04a

Fourth Amendment - search warrants

07A03

Fourth Amendment - standing

07A02

Fourth Amendment - suppression hearing

19F02

Fourth amendment - suppression motions

19F01

Fourth Amendment - Terry stop

07A04b

Fourth Amendment - thermal imaging

07A02

Fourth Amendment - traffic stop

07A04c

Fourth Amendment - waiver

07A04g

Fourth Amendment - warrantless seizures

07A04

Fraud

02E

Frivolous claims, penalty for

13A03

Fugitive disentitlement

03F

Gambling forfeiture

02K

General principles

02A

Gifts: must owner be a “bona fide purchaser for value” to have standing?

05C06

Government misconduct

06F

Government’s failure to provide notice

09F

Grand jury

17A01a

Grand jury disclosure

17A01a

Grand jury secrecy

17A01a

Grand jury subpoenas

17A01f

Gross income or net profit?

03B03

Guilty plea - withdrawing

19M01

Guilty pleas

19M

Guilty pleas forfeiting property

19M

Hearsay

21C02

Hearsay - conspirator statement

21C02b01

History of forfeiture

01A

Homestead laws

05D02f

Immigration forfeiture

02J

Immunity from prosecution

18D03d02

Important Supreme Court cases from the past decade

01C

Improper inducement by government agents

06E02

In forma pauperis  - How to apply for IFP treatment

10B04a

In forma pauperis  - Review of unfavorable IFP decision

10B04b

In forma pauperis requests to waive the cost bond

10B04

In personam jurisdiction

06C02

In rem jurisdiction

06C02

Indictment

12D

Indictment, forfeiture counts in

12D

Ineffectiveness of counsel

15A02

Informant rewards - for testifying

06F04

Informants - in general

17A01b

Informants - privilege

18D10

Informants - revealing identity

17B04

Innocent owner defense

04

Innocent spouses with their names on the title to the property

05D02b

Innocent third parties in criminal forfeiture cases

04E

Interest on seized currency

22E

Interlocutory sale

16D

Interrogatories

18C01

Intervention

14E

Jencks Act

17B02

Joinder

12A03

Joint & several liability

03E

Judgment

21G

Judgment notwithstanding verdict

21D03

Judicial forfeiture notice requirements

09E

Judicial forfeiture process

12

Jurisdiction - conflict between state & fed

06C03

Jurisdiction over subject matter

06C01

Jurisdiction, lack of - in general

06C

Jury - special interrogatories

21F

Jury demand

13B04

Jury instructions

21F

Jury selection

21X

Jury trials - right to

21B

Jury verdict

21F

Kennedy & Ward: “Civil” or “criminal” label as defining rights

01D02

Laches

23A03

Laundering Monetary Instruments – 18 U.S.C. 1956(a)(1)(B)

02D02

Laundering of monetary instruments - 18 U.S.C. 1956(a)(3)(A)-(B)

02D05

Law of the case

19K03

Legal fictions

01A

Leon “good faith” exception

07A03d

Lienholder remedies

05D06a

Limits on in personam jurisdiction

06C06

Limits on in rem jurisdiction

06C05

Lis pendens

08A01b03

Local rules of procedure for the district court

00D05

Magistrate judge

19K01

Mail covers

17A01d

Mail fraud

02E01

Major fraud against the U.S. - 18 U.S.C. 1031

02E07

Materiality

02E

Mathews v. Eldridge: due process test

01D05

Miranda

07B01

Mistrial

21X

Monetary transactions involving criminally derived property from “specified unlawful activity” – 18 U.S.C. 1957

02D06

Money laundering enforcement

02D

Money laundering offenses

02D

Motion for arrest of judgment - FRCrP 34

21G03

Motion for bill of particulars

19E

Motion for judgment - FRCvP 12( c)

19C

Motion for judgment - FRCvP 50

21G01

Motion for judgment of acquittal

21G02

Motion for more definite statement - FRCvP 12(e)

19D

Motion for new trial

21G04

Motion for reconsideration

19K02

Motion for relief from judgment - FRCvP 60

14C

Motion in limine

21A03

Motion to dismiss - FRCvP 12(b)

19B

Motion to dismiss indictment

19G

Motion to reconsider

19K02

Motion to set aside forfeiture

14D

Motion to strike - FRCvP 12(f)

19B05

Motions - in general

19A

Nexus

03C02

Nonjury trials

21B

Notice - administrative

09C02

Notice - by publication

09D

Notice - contents of

09B

Notice - Due Process requirements

09A

Notice of Administrative Forfeiture

09

Offer in compromise

11C

Offer of judgment

19L01

Orders

19K

Other defenses

06

Other types of fraud that trigger forfeiture

02E08

Outrageous government conduct

06E06

Outrageous government conduct

06F02

Ownership does not necessarily entail “dominion and control”

05C02

Ownership interests in partnerships and joint ventures

05D01c

Ownership issues

05

Ownership; The standard at trial

05B07

Patriot Act expands forfeiture & law enforcement powers

00C01

Petitions for remission and/or mitigation

11A

Physical or mental examination

18C05

Plain error

22H02

Pleadings - in general

12B03

Post-seizure probable cause hearing

08A02

Potential financial liability resulting from forfeiture may create standing

05D08

Pre-CAFRA case law on innocent ownership still applies except to the extent it conflicts with CAFRA

04D

Predisposition

06E03

Preliminary order of forfeiture

22A01

Pre-seizure hearing (Good)

08A01

Presidential pardon of forfeiture

23X

Presumption - purchase during time of conspiracy

03B04

Presumption from large amounts of cash

21C06b

Presumption from proximity to contraband

21C06a

Presumption of ownership from possession

05C01

Presumptions

21C06

Pretrial conferences

21A02

Pretrial seizure under CAFRA

08A01f

Prisoner litigation

23G

Privilege - attorney client

18D04

Privilege - spousal

18D06

Privilege - work product

18D05

Privileges - in general

18D02

Pro se litigation

23G

Probable case - when determined?

18B

Probable case - when determined?

21A01b

Probable cause

21C01a

Procedures for obtaining in rem arrest or seizure warrants

08C

Proceeds

03B

Prohibition-era forfeitures

01A03a

Property involved in money laundering

03C03

Property that may be forfeited under RICO

02I02

Proportionality

06A

Prosecutor’s interference with the attorney-client relationship

06F03

Prosecutorial misconduct

06F

Punitive vs. remedial forfeitures

01D04

Purchaser of forfeited property

05E02c

Qualified immunity

23D04

Racketeer Influenced Criminal Organization Act (RICO) – 18 U.S.C. 1961 et seq

02I

Real estate used to facilitate

03C02b

Reasonable cause, certificate of

22D

Relation back

03G

Release of property

16B

Remedies for illegal seizures

08B04

Remission & mitigation

11A

Remission, Mitigation and Other Administrative Remedies

11

Replevin suspended

16X

Request for admissions

18C03

Request for production of documents

18C02

Restitution

21H

Restrain substitute assets pending trial?

08D03

Restraining orders - criminal forfeiture

08D01

Restraint of assets pending foreign prosecution for offenses that would trigger forfeiture in U.S.

08D02

Restraint/release of funds needed for attorney fees

08D04

Restraints on non-seized property declared forfeited under criminal statutes

08D05

Resulting trust

05D02e01

Retroactivity

06G01

RICO - "enterprise"

02I01c

RICO - "pattern"

02I01b

RICO - Civil & Criminal

02I

RICO - conspiracy

02I01f

RICO - interstate commerce

02I01d

RICO - operation or management

02I01e

RICO - racketeering activity

02I01a

RICO & modern forfeiture laws

01A03c

Right to counsel

15A

Rule 11 sanctions

12B04

Rule 11 sanctions

24C

Rule 41(e) FRCrP

23A

Rule 60 FRCvP

14C

Search warrants

07A03

Seizure by search warrant

08B03

Seizure incident to arrest

08B01

Seizure of Real Estate

08A01

Seizure pursuant to Admiralty Rules

08C02

Seizure warrant

08C01

Seizure warrant requirement – or lack thereof

08B02

Seizure without warrant

08B01

Seizures of businesses for facilitation

03C02c

Selective or vindictive prosecution

06F01

Sentencing entrapment

06E07

Sentencing guideline issues

21H02

Sentencing in general

21H01

Service of process rules

12C02

Set offs

22F

Settlements of civil forfeiture cases

19L

Severance

19I

Simultaneous civil & criminal forfeitures

14X

Sovereign immunity

23D02

Special verdict of forfeiture

21E02

Specificity

07A03b

Speedy trial, denial of

06B

Spousal standing and marital property interests

05D02

Spouses who acquire a vested interest while the forfeiture is pending

05D02d

Staleness

07A03a02

Standards of review on appeal

22H02

Standing - “Bona fide purchaser for value”

05E02a

Standing - assignee

05E02b

Standing - bailor/bailee

05D04

Standing - CAFRA limits Buena Vista

05E02

Standing - Claimant must assert his own rights – not someone else’s

05B02

Standing - Corporations

05D01a

Standing - creditors & lienholders

05D06

Standing - crime victims

05D09

Standing - denial of ownership

05C03

Standing - Establishing ownership to survive summary judgment

05B06

Standing - evidence of ownership

05C

Standing - heirs & minor children

05D03

Standing - How much proof of standing is required to survive a Rule 12(b) motion to dismiss?

05B05

Standing - in attacking the legality of search and seizure

07A02

Standing - Joint owners of cash, bank accounts

05D05

Standing - Owners who acquire their interests after property is tainted & “relation back” doctrine

05E

Standing - possessory interest

05B01

Standing - Pre-CAFRA law – U.S. v. 92 Buena Vista Ave

05E01

Standing - preliminary showing

05B

Standing - Prior to CAFRA, some circuits required additional evidence of standing to be filed with claim

05B03

Standing - Spouses who have only “inchoate” marital property interests

05D02c

Standing - stockholder

05D01b

Standing - straw owners

05C05

Standing - Which comes first – standing or probable cause?

05B04

Standing in general

05A

Standing to defend a forfeiture case

05

Standing/ownership issues for particular kinds of interests

05D

State law re: interests in property

05A03

State laws re: interests in property

00D06

Statements - voluntariness

07B02

Statute authorizing forfeiture required

02A01

Statute of limitations

06D

Statute of limitations - accrual

06D02

Statute of limitations - criminal offenses

06D01

Statute of limitations - discovery rule

06D02

Statute of limitations - government's

06D01

Statute of limitations - Rule 41(e)

23A04

Statute of limitations - tolling

06D03

Statutory and common law forfeitures in English Common Law

01A01b02

Statutory Grounds for Forfeiture

02

Statutory requirements for notices of administrative (non-judicial) forfeiture

09C

Statutory standing

05A02

Stay pending appeal

22H01

Stay pending outcome of another case

19J

Stay pending outcome of criminal case

19J

Structural error

22H02

Structuring

02G03

Subpoenas

17C

Subpoenas - civil

18G

Substantial connection

03C02

Substitute assets

03D

Substitute res/bond

16C

Summary judgment

20

Supercede as bond

22H01

Suppression of evidence

07

Suppression of involuntary statements

07B02

Suppression of statements

07B

Suppression of statements for violation of right to counsel

07B03

Suspicious activity reports

17A01c03

Taxes and forfeiture

21F

Tenancy by entireties

05D02b01

Third party defendants

22B

Third party hearings (criminal forfeiture)

22B

Traceable proceeds

03B01

Tract or lot

03C02b01

Transaction defined

03B

Transporting contraband – 49 U.S.C. 781

02C02c

Transporting Funds to Promote Unlawful Activity – 18 U.S.C. 1956(a)(2)(A)

02D03.

Transporting Monetary Instruments for the Purpose of Laundering – 18 U.S.C. 1956(a)(2)(B)

02D04

Trials, in general

21

Tucker Act

23D

Turnover orders

06C03

Twentieth century forfeiture

01A03

Unclean hands

23A03

Unsecured creditors lack standing

05D06b

USA-Patriot Act

00C

Vacating defaults

14B

Vagueness

06I

Vehicles used to “facilitate” a crime

03C02a

Venue

19B02

Video surveillance

07A02

Void judgments

14A

Willful blindness

04B05

Wire fraud

02E02

Wiretaps

07D

Wiretaps

17A01e

Witness fees

06F04

Witness fees

17C02c

Witness fees

21

Witness payments - Singleton

06F04

Witness payments - Singleton

17a01b

World War II era forfeiture; Nazi Germany and the U.S.

01A03b